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最后一战:四号坦克和谢尔曼坦克终极之战

已跟帖 2015-07-21 作者:未知 来源:网络

  If I were to ask you when the final battle between a Panzer IV and a Sherman took place, what would be your answer?

  如果我问你四号坦克和谢尔曼坦克之间的最后一次战斗发生在何时,你的答案是什么呢?

  How many people said 1945? Well it was later than that, a lot later. During the 1967 Six Day War in fact. After their defeat in the Israeli War of Independence and the following years the Syrians brought in advisers to help train their army. These were predominantly German ex-soldiers. These advisers convinced the Syrians they needed more armour. So the Syrians went shopping and from about 1959 they started to acquire Panzer IV's, Stug IIIG's, a handful of Jagdpanzer IV's and even the odd Hummel. The tanks seem to have been sourced from both Czechoslovakia and France, although some may have come from Spain as well. They saw action on the Golan heights during the War over Water. However when the Israelis deployed Centurions the old German tanks were forced back. The Syrians then started to receive Russian support, such as T-34/85's and T54's. From then on the tanks remained in positions on the Golan heights.

  有多少人会回答在1945年?其实比1945年要晚,要晚上很多。实际上,在发生在1967年的六日战争期间。叙利亚在以色列的独立战争中遭到失败后,在之后几年里请了军事顾问帮助他们训练部队。这些顾问主要是前德国军人。这些顾问确信叙利亚需要更多的装甲部队,于是叙利亚决定去购买。大约是从1959年起,他们购入了四号坦克,三号突击炮G型,少量的四号坦克歼击车甚至还有几辆野蜂自行火炮。这些坦克似乎是来自捷克斯洛伐克和法国,不过有些也可能是来自西班牙。在约旦河冲突期间,这些坦克参与了在戈兰高地上战斗行动。然而当以色列在那里开始布置的百人队长坦克后,这些陈旧的德国坦克不得不撤退。后来叙利亚得到了苏联的支援,获得了T-34/85和T-54坦克。从此以后,这些坦克就一直驻扎在戈兰高地上。

  At the start of the Six Day War the Syrians tried a limited offensive. However due to a variety of reasons (and a good study of "how not to do it") the attack was defeated. One of the reasons was bridge width, as the tanks advancing were too wide for the bridges, and the Syrians lost several tanks drowned in rivers. The other major factor was the Israeli Air Force mounting a sustained and deadly attack after catching the Syrian Air Force on the ground. After the attack was defeated the Syrians restricted themselves to firing bombardments into Israel. For their part the Israelis didn't want to push the Syrians to avoid fighting on too many fronts. However this changed on the 9th of June when the Israelis attacked.

  在六日战争刚开始时,叙利亚发动了一次规模不大的攻势。然而由于种种原因(至于进攻为何会失败,这是一个很好的研究课题),他们的进攻被击退。其中有一个原因是桥的宽度,对于坦克来说,桥太窄了,有几辆叙利亚坦克掉入了河中。失败的另一个主要原因是以色列空军发动了持续且致命的打击,把叙利亚空军摧毁在地面上。在攻击失败后,叙利亚的作战行动仅限于对以色列进行炮击。而就以色列来说,为了避免多线作战,他们并不想去进攻叙利亚。不过,在六月九日后,局势发生了变化,以色列开始进攻。

  The 8th Armoured Brigade consisting of M50 and M51 Shermans attacked. Around Tel Faher and Tel Azaziat there were several Panzer IV's, and at least one Stug III. One source suggests there was four Panzer IV's at Tel Faher. All the German tanks were well dug in with minefields and infantry. The infantry were armed with Soviet anti-tank weapons.

  装备有M50和M51谢尔曼(超级谢尔曼)的以色列第八装甲旅发起了攻击。叙利亚在Tel Faher和Tel Azaziat周边地区部署有一些四号坦克和至少一辆三号突击炮。有一份资料上说在Tel Faher有四辆四号坦克。所有的德制坦克都由雷区保护,并有步兵协助。这些步兵还装备了苏制反坦克武器。

  The Israelis attacked with eight Sherman Dozer's leading the advance to clear the minefields, however five were destroyed by defending fire. The 8th Brigade also took heavy losses in Shermans.

  以色列攻击部队用八辆装有推土铲的谢尔曼开道,以清扫雷区。但是,有五辆被防御炮火击毁,第八旅也损失了大量的谢尔曼坦克。

  In the early afternoon after pushing forward in half tracks the Israeli forces had reached the base of the hills that the Syrian positions were on. However the crawl across the open ground had cost them dearly. Only 25 soldiers remained combat ready. These were split into two groups who stormed the two fire bases. At Tel Azaziat of the 13 men who attacked only three survived the assault. At Tel Faher the casualties were worse. Of the 12 attackers only one man survived.

  下午早些时候,以色列部队乘坐半履带式装甲车,推进到了一座山脚下,山上有叙利亚人的据点。在穿越开阔地带时,以色列部队损失惨重,只剩下25个士兵还能战斗。他们分成两组,向两个火力点发起突击。在Tel Azaziat,参与进攻的13个士兵中只有3人活了下来。对Tel Faher的攻击则更为惨烈,12个人里只有1人活了下来。

  During this battle at least one of the Sherman's destroyed a Panzer IV. A study of the wrecks in the area shows that one of the Stugs was hit three times by a Sherman, and a fourth hole was caused by ammunition cooking off and punching out from the inside of the vehicle.

  着这场战斗中,至少有一辆谢尔曼坦克击毁了一辆四号坦克。对该区域坦克残骸进行调查的结果表明,有一辆三号突击炮被谢尔曼坦克击中三次。这辆三号突击炮的弹药殉爆后,从内向外在车体上又炸开第四个洞。


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