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从未收到的货物 日本虎式的历史背景

已跟帖 2015-07-22 作者:未知 来源:网络

  In terms of the art of war, Japan was developing as an island country: the navy and aviation were of the highest priority. The army was not really weak, but in terms of military equipment, it was definitely inferior to their European counterparts, who were used to conducting warfare on solid ground.

  就战略层面来看,日本是以一个岛国的身份发展起来的,海军和空中力量是最紧要的。他们的陆军其实并不弱,但就装备来看,肯定弱于欧洲国家。而军事装备为战争走向奠定了一个坚实的基础。

  This was evident by just looking at Japanese armoured vehicles. Even the most advanced mass-produced Japanese tank—the Type 97 ShinHoTo Chi-Ha—was weak when compared with the Soviet T-34, the German Pz.Kpfw IV or the US Sherman. Heavy tanks were not used by the Japanese Army at all.

  日本的装甲车辆就是一个明显的例证。即使他们最先进的量产坦克,即九七式中战车新炮塔型(译注:装一式47mm炮的那种型号),也要弱于苏联的T-34、德国的四号坦克和美国的谢尔曼坦克。而日本陆军根本就没有重型坦克。

  The Empire is in Danger

  危机中的帝国

  The poor quality of Japanese tanks was not the result of erroneous actions of the military leaders. The main theatre of war for Japan was the Pacific islands. All vehicles and supplementary equipment had to be transported by sea, which necessitated the restriction of their weights. The island terrain was not suitable for using heavy vehicles either. The armament of China, the only major mainland rival of Japan, was of very poor quality, and the combat capabilities of Japanese vehicles in comparison to the Chinese Army were more than enough.

  日本坦克低劣的质量并不是军方高层错误的决策造成的。日本的主要作战地域是太平洋上的岛屿,所有的车辆及辅助设备都必须通过海运才能到达那里,所以必须限制重量。而海岛上的地形也不适合于重型车辆。日本在大陆上唯一的对手只有中国军队,他们的质量非常差,面对中国陆军,日本战车的作战能力绰绰有余。

  A German propaganda picture showing Japanese officers manning a Tiger tank. Photo from the book, Germany’s Tiger Tanks, by T. Jentz and H. Doyle

  一张德国的宣传照,虎式坦克上的日本军官。照片来自T. Jentz和H. Doyle的《德国的虎式坦克》一书。

  On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the USA. Those events started the triumphant march of the Imperial Japanese Army over the Pacific islands. The Japanese invaded the Philippines, multiple islands of Oceania, and parts of New Guinea. To remedy the situation, the allied forces had to invest a lot of time and effort if they ever wanted to push back.

  1941年12月7日,日本偷袭珍珠港,此后日本陆军在太平洋的海岛上所向披靡。日本占领了菲律宾、大洋洲的多个岛屿,新几内亚的一部分。为了挽救不利的局势,盟军花了很长时间,做出了很大的努力,以试图进行反击。

  During their domination in the Pacific region, the Japanese created a defensive perimeter, where the islands played the role of strongholds. Afterwards, the Americans started to fight back. In June 1942, the Japanese lost four aircraft carriers during the Battle of Midway. The Battle of Guadalcanal, which lasted six months and ended in February of 1943 with the US forces being victorious, deprived Japan of the strategic initiative. Their defensive perimeter began falling apart under the attacks and Americans started approaching Japan one island at a time.

  日本人在称霸太平洋的那段时间内,构建了一条防线,把这条防线上的各个海岛建成了要塞。此后,美国人开始反攻。1942年6月,在中途岛海战中,日本人损失了四艘航空母舰。持续六个月的瓜达卡纳尔岛战役在1943年2月结束,美军获胜,日本失去了战略主动权。在美军的攻击下,他们的防线支离玻碎。美军一个岛屿一个脚印,向日本本土进军。

  This led the Japanese military leaders to think about the threat of the US invasion. To withstand US attacks, the Japanese needed heavy tanks, and their projects were merely in the design stage and were never embodied in metal. Their German allies, however, boasted a new powerful tank— the Pz.Kpfw. VI Tiger.

  这一切使得日本军方高层开始思考美军的威胁。为了应对美国的进攻,日本需要重型坦克,但他们自己的项目还在设计阶段,没有造出来。而他们的德国盟友正在为自己强大的新式坦克而自豪,那就是虎式坦克。

  Cargo with no Perspective

  从未收到的货物

  Japanese submarine aircraft carrier of project I-400. The plan was to use this ship to transport the Tiger across the ocean.

  日本的伊-400型潜水航母。计划用这种潜艇将虎式坦克运到日本。

  Germany responded to the plea of their Axis allies. Hiroshi Oshima, the Japanese ambassador, was taken to the Kummersdorf facility and shown the production of Tigers at the Henschel plants - generally speaking, the ambassador got closely acquainted with the product. He became thrilled with the idea and entered into negotiations with the German Ministry of Armaments.

  德国人对于他们盟友的请求作出了回应。他们让日本驻德国大使大岛浩参观了位于库莫尔斯多夫的设施,并向他展示了亨舍尔工厂的虎式生产线。总之,日本大使得以在近距离观察了虎式生产线。购买虎式坦克的想法让他激动万分,开始和德国装备部进行谈判。

  In 1943, the Japanese received two packages of technical documentation. A point of purchasing the tanks has been raised as the cost of a Tiger was around 300,000 Reichsmarks in comparable prices of 1943 but the Ministry of Armaments and Henschel requested 645,000 Reichsmarks. The price was sky-high, but it doesn’t mean that the Germans just decided to cash in on their oversea allies. First, the tank would be supplied with ammunition, radio and optics. [河蟹], the Germans were ready to disassemble and pack the tank before shipping it to Japan. Plus, it seems that the cost of technical documentation was also included into the price.

  1943年,日本接收了两包技术文档。根据1943年的价格,一辆虎式坦克的造价大概是300000帝国马克,不过在购买时有所上涨,但德国装备部和亨舍尔的报价是645000帝国马克。这是个天价,但这并不意味着德国人想在他们的海外盟友身上狠赚一笔。首先,这辆坦克装备有武器、电台和光学设备。其次,在运往日本之前,德国人还需要将坦克拆解打包。另外,这个价格还包含有技术文档的费用。

  What was the point of disassembling? The deal itself did not present any difficulties, but the shipping did. The option with surface ships was disregarded, as the Allies commanded the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic. Underwater shipping became the only alternative - however, that alternative was less than stellar, as there were not many vessels that could bear a huge 30-ton hull. Submarine aircraft carriers that had corresponding characteristics were not finished, and the Tiger had many chances to hit a snag on its way to Japan. Based on the most optimistic of estimates, the buyer could count on delivery by December 1944.

  那么又是何时拆解的呢?交易本身没有难度,但如何运输却成了问题。因为盟军已控制了地中海和大西洋,使用水面舰船运输的方案直接给无视了。水下运输成了唯一的方案。但是,这个方案也不怎么样。因为没有什么潜艇能运输一个巨大的30吨车体。具有这种能力的潜水航母尚未完工,而且在运往日本的途中,还有可能遭遇各种意外。即使是最乐观的估计,买家也要等到1944年12月才能拿到货。

  Nevertheless, the tank was sent to the Bordeaux port. In February 1944, the Japanese paid for the order and officially came into possession of the Tiger, but it still remained a dead weight hung in the air. In the summer of 1944, the Allies landed in Normandy and put Germany on the spot.

  但不管怎么说,这辆坦克还是被运到波尔多港。1944年2月,日本人支付了货款,正式拥有了这辆坦克,但这只不过是水中月镜中花而已。因为在1944年夏季,盟军在诺曼底登陆,把德国逼到了悬崖上。

  Following the Decision of the Supreme High Command of the German Army dated to 21 September 1944, the Japanese Tiger was leased (or requisitioned, according to other sources) and passed to the field forces. That is how it was lost somewhere on the Western Front.

  根据1944年9月21日德国陆军最高统帅部的决定,租用(有些资料说是征用)了日本人的虎式坦克,交给了野战部队。最后损失在西线战场上。


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